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Perceptions of Inclusion Questionnaire (PIQ): Validation studies

Background and aims

The Perceptions of Inclusion Questionnaire (PIQ) is a short questionnaire for global capture of elementary dimensions of students’ inclusion in Grades 3 through 9. There are four items each on three subscales that measure: emotional attitude towards the school (emotional integration), feeling of social inclusion (social integration), and mental representation of one’s own school competencies (academic self-concept). The PIQ was constructed by Venetz, Zurbriggen, and Eckhart (2014) based on the German questionnaire for assessing dimensions of integration of students (Fragebogen zur Erfassung von Dimensionen der Integration von Schülern [FDI]) by Haeberlin, Moser, Bless, and Klaghofer (1989)). The short length, quality characteristics, and simple language of the PIQ make it highly attractive for special education and inclusion education research and for special education practice.

The general aim of this research project is further development and validation of the PIQ, so that it can be made available at no cost to interested persons in research and practice. An international group of researchers has developed a self-report version for students (PIQ-S) as well as a version for teachers (PIQ-T) and a version for parents (PIQ-P) (Venetz, Zurbriggen, Eckhart, Schwab, & Hessels, 2015). These can be downloaded in (so far) 12 languages from a website specifically created for the PIQ.


The focus of this project is on in-depth analyses of the psychometric properties of the PIQ, in particular regarding convergent and discriminant validity of the PIQ; stability of the characteristics over time; measurement equivalence of different versions and language versions; special education-relevant subgroups; and standardization.


To examine the research questions, through cooperation with other researchers, several data sets from various research projects in Switzerland and in other countries are available. The data will be analysed using quantitative methods.


A scientifically based and validated instrument can be made available. The Perceptions of Inclusion Questionnaire (PIQ) was introduced to a wider audience through publications, conference contributions, and continuing education courses.


Schwab, S., Zurbriggen, C. L. A., & Venetz, M. (2020). Agreement among student, parent and teacher ratings of school inclusion: A multitrait-multimethod analysis. Journal of School Psychology, 82, 1–16. DOI

Knickenberg, M., Zurbriggen, C., Venetz, M., Schwab, S. & Gebhardt, M. (2019). Assessing dimensions of inclusion from student’s perspective: Measurement invariance across students with learning disabilities in different educational settings. European Journal of Special Needs Education. DOI

Venetz, M., Zurbriggen, C. L. A., & Schwab, S. (2019). What do teachers think about their students’ inclusion? Consistency of students’ self-reports and teacher ratings. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1637. DOI

Zurbriggen, C. L. A., Venetz, M., Schwab, S., & Hessels, M. G. P. (2017). A psychometric analysis of the student version of the perceptions of inclusion questionnaire (PIQ). European Journal of Psychological Assessment. Advance online publication. DOI


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