Enhanced inclusive learning (EIL): Compensation for disadvantages in upper secondary education


Background and aims

At the upper secondary school level there are young people with learning difficulties and behaviour problems (Wille et al, 2008; Stein & Ebert, 2010). Compared to the primary and lower secondary levels, however, there are fewer support measures for students at the upper secondary level. One of these measures is disadvantage compensation, for which young persons with a certified impairment can apply. But when it comes to implementing disadvantage compensation, there is a lot of uncertainty (Schellenberg, Hofmann, & Georgi, 2017).

Project Management
Prof. Dr.
Professorin für die berufliche Integration von Jugendlichen mit besonderen pädagogischen Bedürfnissen
claudia.schellenberg [at] hfh.ch

Project Team

Annette Krauss
Pia Georgi-Tscherry
Tanja Rüdisühli


This study has two aims: first, to examine in greater detail the current situation of affected young people – with and without disadvantage compensation – and their feelings, their reactions to the requirements, and their perception of the support; and second, to find out how, exactly, disadvantage compensation is being implemented.

Methodical approach

First, we will conduct a written survey of young people at vocational and secondary schools (n = 600) and their teachers (n = 40). A part of this sample will be young people who receive disadvantage compensation (n = 60). Interviews with young people and professionals at the upper secondary level (e.g. vocational education teachers in inter-company courses) will complement the survey.

Based on the findings, we will develop special products, such as guidelines for the use of disadvantage compensation or advisory offerings in inclusive instruction for teachers and vocational education teachers at the upper secondary level.

Project Organisation

This research project builds on the study Upper secondary school pathways with compensation for the disadvantages of disability. It is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of researchers from two universities (University of Applied Sciences in Special Needs Education and Lucerne School of Social Work). It is supported and monitored by an expert committee consisting of representatives of the responsible cantonal offices, the Swiss Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (EHB), the Swiss Service Centre for Vocational Training, Study and Career Counselling (SDBB), the Schweizerisches Zentrum für die Mittelschule (ZEM), and other specialists in the area of disadvantage compensation.


Wille, N., Bettge, S., Ravens-Sieberer, U., & BELLA Study Group. (2008). Risk and protective factors for children’s and adolescents’ mental health: Results of the BELLA study. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 17(1), 133-147.

Schellenberg, C., Hofmann, C., & Georgi-Tscherry, P. (2017). Laufbahnen auf der Sekundarstufe II mit Nachteilsausgleich. Schlussbericht zur Befragung der kantonalen Ämter, Schulen und Jugendlichen. Zurich, Switzerland: University of Applied Sciences in Special Needs Education.

Stein, R., & Ebert, H. (2010). Verhaltensauffälligkeiten an beruflichen Schulen zur sonderpädagogischen Förderung: Eine Pilotstudie mit der ‘Teacher’s Report Form’ und dem ‘Youth Self Report’. Empirische Sonderpädagogik, 2(4), 62-80.

Schellenberg, C., & Krauss, A.
Inklusive Didaktik und Nachteilsausgleich an Berufsfachschulen und Gymnasien. Ergebnisse des Forschungsprojektes "Enhanced Inclusive Learning".
Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Heilpädagogik,
Krauss, A., & Schellenberg, C.
Umgang mit Beeinträchtigungen auf Sekundarstufe II: Ein Leitfaden für Lehrpersonen, Ausbildungsverantwortliche und andere Fachpersonen.
Hochschule für Soziale Arbeit Luzern & Interkantonale Hochschule für Heilpädagogik.
Krauss, A., & Schellenberg, C.
EIL - Enhanced Inclusive Learning. Nachteilsausgleich und andere unterstützende Massnahmen auf Sekundarstufe II. Schlussbericht.
Interkantonale Hochschule für Heilpädagogik & Hochschule Luzern.